Complete glossary used in the art business .
Updated: Mar 14, 2019
Art is on the internet, in big and small auctions, in thrift stores, galleries, fairs, EVERYWHERE because with art is involved a lot of money, tons of money.
Many little and big sharks are waiting to tear you apart to get your money.
They will use all kind of subterfuges.
Certificates and provenance statements of all kinds are proposed to buyers.
But a certificate of authenticity “ has to be made by the SOLE RECOGNIZED UNIVERSAL AUTHORITY for an artist. “ For example, a Picasso painting authenticated by a NY gallery, as prestigious it may be, will be not accepted to be offered in a major auction house. It has to receive the certificate of authenticity from the Picasso Administration, no exceptions. A certificate needs to be not older than 6 months, I require a new certificate of authenticity each time I sell a painting. Sometimes a recognized authority is no longer the authority, so by example Mrs. Maya Picasso who made certificates for years, is no longer the recognized expert.
I always advise a seller to mention in the bill of sale the author of the art work as “ Attributed to “. It avoids the possibility to be sued by a buyer in case there is contestation of the authenticity. Recognized authorities may be replaced so rapidly that you may sell a painting with a no longer recognized recognized authority.
When you buy an artwork with the mention attributed to there might be a degree of uncertainty, it is up to the buyer to verify the authenticity
Glossary used in the business of art:
after – a direct imitation of an original artwork, made at a later date assistant – someone who worked in the artist's studio and assistants – by the artist, made with help from his assistants associate of – by someone who had links to the artist, but was not in their studio attributed to – thought to have been painted by the artist, but there is a degree of uncertainty by or after – either by the artist or a direct imitation of the artist’s style, made at a later date by or follower of – either by the artist or by someone who admired them and imitated their style, but was not necessarily a pupil circle of – by an artist closely associated with the master artist, but who did not work in their studio copy after – repetition of another artwork, generally made after the artist’s lifetime, or by an artist outside their studio copy of – repetition of another artwork follower of – by someone who admired the artist and imitated their style, but was not necessarily a pupil forgery – imitation of an artwork, intended to deceive imitator of – by someone who admired the artist and their style, but was probably working at a later date possibly – thought to be by the artist, but this is uncertain pupil of – by someone who trained within the studio or workshop of the artist, often profoundly influenced by the artist's style school of – in the general style or manner of student of – by someone who trained within the studio or workshop of the artist, often profoundly influenced by the artist's style studio of – by assistants or pupils who worked in the artist’s studio, probably under the direction and guidance of the artist and studio – by the artist, with assistance from his studio studio copy – by pupils in imitation of the master artist. Pupils often copied the artist’s most famous works in order to disseminate copies style of – by someone who created the artwork in a manner that resembles the artist
Reference to: https://artuk.org/about/glossary-85
In conclusion, when you buy a painting you need to verify the authenticity of the painting by obtaining a COA , certificate of authenticity by the sole recognized authority for an artist.
Attributed to, school of, cercle of etc is not a warranty of authenticity.
I will document also in another chapter, the mediums, the artists , who the real authorities are etc